Charaters of RDF


Waste avoidance, conservation of resources and efficient use of recyclable materials are among the most urgent challenges and tasks of our time. Therefore RDF (Refuse Derived Fuel, alternative fuels) are becoming more popular, they are used as fractions of high heating value for substitute scarce and expensive fossil fuels.Furthermore, RDF as outlined in national and international laws in energetic use.

Use of the RDF(alternative fuel)

The higher quality RDF obtainable is used to produce energy in installations such as:

  • Incinerators
  • Cement kilns
  • Coal-fired power plants
  • Plants that use other innovative technologies to incinerate waste (pyrolysis, plasma gasification)


To produce RDF, fractions of high heating value recovered from domestic waste, bulky waste, commercial waste as well as remains from recycling processes and industrial waste are used. Raw materials are recovered from domestic waste, commercial waste, wood waste, bulky waste as well as remains from industrial waste and recycling processes.

RDF densification brings several advantages:

  • Increase in bulk density of the material, facilitating the storage and handling and reducing transport costs
  • Reduction of residual moisture, thus increasing the calorific value of the material
  • Homogenization of material properties, thus facilitating its use as fuel even on traditional plants (coal) while maintaining a good combustion control
  • Substantial elimination of any organic residues, given the relatively high temperatures reached during the process; this which involves a reduction of odors and a relative disinfecting and sanitizing of the product, which subsequently can be stored for relatively long periods of time


Characteristics of the RDF according to UNI 9903

Main Features RDF high quality
UNI 9903 (Table 2)
RDF normal quality
UNI 9903 (Table 1)
and DM 05/02/98
Physical Appearance
Weight mm
PCI KJ / kg square (as is) > 20,000 > 15,000
Humidity tq < 18% < 25%
Chlorine ss (dry matter) < 0.7% < 0.9%*
Sulfur ss < 0.3% < 0.6%*
Ashes ss < 15% < 20%
Chrome mg / kg dm < 70 < 100
Copper mg / kg dm < 50 < 300
Manganese mg / kg dm < 200 < 400
Nickel mg / kg dm < 30 < 40
Arsenic mg / kg dm < 5 < 9
Cadmium mg / kg dm < 3 < 7
Mercury mg / kg dm < 1
Lead-volatile mg / kg dm < 100 < 200
* Value % on the material as it is


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